Akhtarinama: Life and music darken the journey

It was Begum Akhtar, whose upbringing was neatly sculpted by Mushtarbai. It was Begum, whom Mushtarbai brought to the cinema, when Gauharjan Karnatki’s films used to speak and raise the heads of the people and made Adani Si Akhtari stand against them. Mushtarbai, whom the whole house used to call ‘big saab’ – sat on the balcony of the house and kept an eye on every visitor who came to meet Akhtari and who went? It was Begum Akhtar, who moved from Gaya to Calcutta because of the promotion of Mushtari, so that Parsis could work in the theater and later go to Bombay to make their mark in cinema.

In this entire episode, one thing is very clear that all the important women who have been recognized as the early representatives of Indian cinema and classical music – most of their success is attributed to their mothers, who in their time were towards daughters. The rebels could not move forward, but the desire to see their own life in the golden light never shied.

From here the context of understanding Begum Akhtar moves forward. Born on October 7, 1914, in Bhadarsa town of Faizabad district, Akhtaribai Faizabadi’s initial introduction was that she was the younger daughter of Faizabad’s well-known tawaif Mushtarbai and lawyer Asghar Hussain. Asghar Hussain was so fond of Mushtaribai that he made Mushtari his second wife. It is another matter that in the little girl Bibbi (the name of Akhtaribai’s childhood), she was present since her childhood, which was gradually transformed into a different adult and sensible Akhtari by the circumstances.

Rising Amidst The Challenges

His poor economic condition of childhood drove him to Calcutta around 1920. One of its successes was that Mushtaribai handed him over to Ustad Ata Muhammad Khan of the Patiala gharana to dress up in traditional classical music. Akhtari was never able to sing with full heart after learning from the dry and serious singing of Maestro, but remained close to him and perfected in Ghazal, Thumri and Dadra. At that time, the pain of not being able to learn Khayal properly in childhood inspired him to learn Khayal again and this time, he was very keen to learn the specifics of Khayal from the kirana stalwart Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan.

This time Akhtari was more intelligent and more serious. Now he had a childhood as before and he knew very well that Khayal was insensitive to his family in performing in front of the public without knowing the minutest depth of singing. She grew up learning Khyal, Thumri, Dadra and Ghazal and the artist inside her was enriched in terms of language and dialect by listening to the tinkling words of Purbia, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Hindi and Urdu.

You can easily examine here how the organ of the East and the color of the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb of Uttar Pradesh is uniquely scaled in the singing of Begum Akhtar. The use of Urdu words with despatches is another great strength of Begum Akhtar’s singing, which makes her dominance in her contemporaries differently.

It was the effect of Akhtaribai’s upbringing, her sophistication and training in different cities at a young age in different ways that in later days, when she was in the most delicate and beautiful era both in terms of her music and age, India Most of the Nawabs and Raja Maharajas made him a singer in their court from time to time. Begum Akhtar, who had been a court singer in the Nawabs of Hyderabad, Bhopal and Rampur and the court houses of Kashmir and Ayodhya, was always counted among the big singers.

Begum Akhtar made her mark in the presence of her predecessor and contemporary singers especially Anjanebai Malpekar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Moghubai Kurdikar and Siddheshwari Devi. So much ardor about learning and unmatched desire to get something new, he has been rewarded with many songs. For example, a dadra – ‘Main to tere Damanwa lagi maharaj’, heard from Anjani Bai Malpekar, older than his age and almost 90 years old, of Bhendi Bazar gharana, he learned after almost following him. In this way, it would seem that even though she lived in a house, she was not completely a family.

Begum Sahiba, who was like a fan behind Unmukt, Swachhand and skill, did everything she liked. He wanted to get everything, who is afraid of having great masters too. Akhtaribai Faizabadi, who learned something by going to many rates, was also amazing that she used to save her type of Begum Akhtar in some corner somewhere by drowning in it completely. In this context, it is worth recounting an interesting memoir of Ustad Bismillah Khan, Khan saheb formate – “Begum Akhtar had a strange sore on her neck. Whom they say ‘Aqar ki taan’, when they are ‘A’, their throat gets torn, and that was their quality. But in Shastraya music, that defect is considered. Once we said, ‘Say something, tell me something.’ She said, “What am I to say, tell me.” We said anything. Begum started singing, “Nirala Banra Deewana Bana De”. After saying one time, two times, when she got her throat slammed in Deewana Ban De, we said, “Aha, this is sitam hai teri awaaz ka.” At the time of the tigun, the hoist was thick, the same was amazing in Begum Akhtar. ”

The throat becomes acute by distorting the pure vowels in a special situation, or it breaks in the normal sense while taking the tones, mints, and gum – in the art of Begum Akhtar.

Used to make rude changes. People used to sit for hours just waiting for that moment, not knowing when that moment would come.

Historian Salim Kidwai explains that “no one knew exactly when the audience would feel that situation in the payment of Begum Akhtar, but it is certain that no such Jatan Begum did it on purpose.” The special speculation was natural and almost unpredictable – perhaps that is why from that time till today, listening to Begum’s ghazals, the young generation of that unexpected squid Mr. Collier is apparently settled. This deformity found by nature has become the decoration of Begum Akhtar’s singing. Then, whether one wants to make ‘crazy’ or ‘make it crazy’, one will feel, whether one speaks softly, one will listen and hear rants like ‘Hamari Atariya Pe Aao Sanwariya’; Everything was completely unique in his style, which was not possible to copy.

Music has always been a part of enlightened society. Despite having gained recognition and superiority in Indian classical singing, there is a tradition of escaping by saying ‘pakka song’. For those who have been listening to music for their fun, classical singing has always been a matter of curiosity. But the recognition of those people who have been thinking so much about Begum Akhtar has also been amazingly respectful and complimentary.

It may also happen that just as the life of Begum Akhtar is made and decorated with all the cross-sloping lines and a lot of sad colors, a listener gets a little extra space for movement. Being the daughter of a bai, then acting in cinema, then gradually gaining centrality in the ecclesiastical music society and doing the right thing by exposing her luxurious life and food – all this together Begum Akhtar To turn it into a wonder object. The singing of Begum Akhtar, who used to get up in her own age by smoking cigarettes and alcohol, is also being heard, seen and practiced till date for this reason, both with great surprise and some skepticism. In this, listeners and fans were also always allowed to decide how much their own favorite singer’s misery is and how far to go.

Begum Akhtar’s singing, caught in the conflict between this familiarity and innocence, has always been a curiosity among the new listeners. It is the opinion of all those Kadradans that when Begum Akhtar used to sing a ghazal, the entire festival would have a magical effect. During 60-70, which is also the peak period of the Begum, it was quite amazing to hear such a famous ghazal singer. It was difficult for those listeners to decide how much Akhtaribai’s voice was connected to the ground while singing and how much myth. How much height can be provided to moments like sorrow, tears, pain, love, pain, rebellion, adornment – for this matter their ghazals should be investigated afresh.

How does the pain of common life in singing sing the classical dignity Akhtiyar – Begum Akhtar was an example of this. Here, there is no hesitation in saying that the era in which his contemporary singer singers played the melody of ‘pakka-gana’ by their amazing fun, at the time, in the spirit of their emotions, was bounded by the restrictions of serious literary Urdu words. Meer, Ghalib, Momin, singing the ghazals of Daag, on the other hand, contemporary and new poets Kaifi Azmi, Shakeel Badauni, Jigar Muradabadi, Sudarshan Faqir With sector, Begum Akhtar were way ahead of their contemporary vocalists. The practical aspect of the particular rhythm or sound of music which is often practiced by the music, its practical aspect was clear from their singing.

A Subtle Art

To understand the art of a lifeless singer like Begum Akhtar, we must also look behind the chickens lying on the closed corridors of her life, out of which a great funk has been achieved by Awadh. Long before Akhtaribai became Begum Akhtar, Lucknow has been filled with history of well-known people in the world of music in many ways. In these, we can mainly take the names of Nawab Wazid Ali Shah, Bindadin Maharaj, Achchan Maharaj etc.

How Akhtaribai was thinking progressively in the early stages of her life and had the ability to walk together step by step in the new age, this can be understood by her one decision. This incident dates back to 1938 AD, as well as an important year in his life. At a time when most of the singers and tawaifs maintained their whereabouts (which we can call ‘kotha’) in the old Nakkhas and Chowk areas of old Lucknow, Akhtaribai would become the first such female figure to be known in the history of music, Who broke this old ritual in one stroke. He preferred to go straight from the infamous streets of the Chowk to a modern settlement like Hazratganj of New Lucknow and live among the ‘Shurafa’ (nobility).

In 1938 he built his kotha ‘Akhtar-Manzil’ near Zahoor Bakhsh Church, in Lal Bagh, Hazratganj. Now, you see that like the rest of the tawaifs, she did not go to the chowk to settle. He differentiated himself from the rest of the singers. He also separated himself from the lewd movement, which used to hold the reputation of a few notorious settlements. In this time, he came to such a place and put his music and music, where the people of Sharif houses could easily come.

Where ‘Akhtar Manzil’ was built; His background was that on one side there was the famous Ibadhatgah Zahoor Bakhsh Church, on the other side this Kotha where

Geerabad used to fall just behind the Palace. The house of Chaudhary Rashiduddin Ashraf, the talukedar of Karkha, who was the brother-in-law of Jahangirabad, also used to be next to the ‘Akhtar Manzil’. Now, coming to such a neighborhood, any Sharifzada could easily come to the residence of Akhtaribai. There, no one could raise a finger on him, ‘Hey Mian, what were you doing there at that time?’ If this place falls on a street or crossroads in Old Lucknow, then the fans of Begum’s music, from the upper and the elite They belonged, could not go there even if they wanted to.

Discussion of this episode of Begum Akhtar is necessary to understand this historical fact that before or after 1938 till date, no tawaif could settle in the area of ​​Hazratganj. Far from building a shelter, could not even think like this. Incidentally, it is also important to know that once again around 1945, he built his second house on Havelock Road. This time also gave him ‘Akhtar-Manzil’.

 

India stands on the threshold of cluttered general elections due to the demonization of fake news

During the campaigning of the last US presidential election, a ‘news’ created a rage among the voters. On an unknown website, the first thing was shared that Pope Francis has supported Donald Trump, the Republican candidate. The news was written in such a reliable way that people felt that it has happened. More than 10 lakh people shared and liked this news on Facebook.

This news was not on any established media platform. But during the election, the information or disinformation that was seen and carried forward by the people, was the news. This happened when it was clearly said to the Pope and the Vatican that the Pope does not support or oppose any political party or candidate.

There is no information about the people who run this fake news website. This website is now closed. This site clearly writes in its about us that it is a satire or satirical website. Despite this, people trusted this misinformation and brought it to each other. Another such news became very viral that Clinton sold weapons to IS.

Buzzfeed studied the most read 20 news and 20 fake news during the US elections and said that 20 news reports on fake or biased websites got more than 8.7 million likes, shares, comments and reactions on Facebook, while the news established during that time The most read 20 news stories of websites got 73 lakh shares, likes, comments and reactions. It is interesting that out of these 20 fake news, there are 17 that were written in favor of Trump, while there are only 3 that tried to benefit Clinton.

This is a matter of 2016 and it all happened in America far away from India. A similar flood of fake news has also come in Britain. When a referendum was held in Britain about whether to stay in the European Union or leave. It is also known as Brexit.

The most worrying thing was found in ‘Fake News’ which came during the US elections and the Bracket that the source of many of these were outside these countries. In the US elections, the work of running and viraling fake news was being done from Macedonia and Russia. Sources of many fake news were found in Russia even during the breakthrough. Such role of another country in elections puts the whole idea of ​​democracy at risk because information and news have a big role in forming people’s opinion during elections. Many researches have been done in this world and the role of media in agenda setting has also become a theory.

Information, Rumor, Falsehood and Public Opinion

Actually this time is the time of ‘information disorder’ across the world. By ‘information disorder’, there is an increase in the incidence of creation, production and distribution of fake news. It has emerged as a global problem. The seriousness of this problem is further increased when an external country tries to influence the election issues of one country through the internet / social media. Russia’s intervention in the 2016 US elections is one example of this. At the same time, the news of fake news during the time of the Brajjit affected people’s voting continuously. There are concerns about UNESCO to the European Union.

In Britain, the House of Commons has done a study of this and the House Committee has said in its report that strict rules need to be made to stop ‘fake news’. Not only this, media institutions like BBC etc. are also taking initiative to counter misinformation.

In place of fake news, many organizations are using words like ‘Miss Information’, ‘Disinformation’, Information-Disorder or ‘Malinformation’. The main reason for this is the use of the term ‘fake news’ in a political way. The term fake news was used indiscriminately by US President Donald Trump.

Whatever news the Donald Trump dislikes or is displeased with any media institution, they call it fake news. They have said this so many times that now the word fake news has lost its meaning. Therefore, in the coming days, those who want to oppose fake news, they have to use another word instead of fake news.

There are 3 main stages or stages of fake news:

Source / Creator- Fake news can also be sponsored by the government, any political party can also build it, religion contractors can also do it. Even those who earn money just by making the news viral can also create fake news.

Production- The idea of ​​fake news may be someone else is giving, but the picture or word that gives them the form of video, that is, the content they are preparing, is the stage of production.

Distribution – Now comes the stage to spread fake news. Fake news is spread in many cases by the same people who make it. It may also play the role of machine identita bot. But this is not always necessary. Maybe some political or religious group should give money to people and spread fake news through them. That is, the source and distributor can be one and also different. Fake news also spreads to the general public. This work happens knowingly and unknowingly. Deliberately spread people who are associated with a particular ideology. Unknowingly, those who spread it do not know that it is fake.

Since India is now going through the era of information revolution, and more than 500 million people are in the internet, then the danger of this is real that there may be an attempt to influence elections in India also through fake news. Its risk in India is also high because unlike western countries, educated people are less in India. Internet literacy from the top is very low here. Those who have become literate, ie those who can sign their own or those who are illiterate, can also forward the message on their WhatsApp, which can be fake news. People unable to read text can also be affected by videos and photos.

In Indian elections, fake news or ‘disinformation’ can take the form of a big problem.

 

Why is Kashmiri Pandits so angry with BJP?

“The Kashmiri Pandit and the Ram temple are an issue for the BJP. BJP people do nothing for both, just create ruckus. When not in power, we are our biggest benefactors, but forget us as soon as you come to power, ”says Sanjay Raina, who lives in Pandit Colony in Sheikhpura, Srinagar.

Sanjay Raina is one of those Kashmiri Pandits whose family left their homes and left Kashmir during the violence. But he has returned to Kashmir after getting a job under the Prime Minister’s Package during the UPA government.

Sanjay, who was the president of Pandit Colony of Sheikhpura, expressed his displeasure with the BJP and says, “Now see, Lok Sabha elections are near, they have remembered the Ram temple. Kashmiri Pandits will also be remembered in a few days. The central government is to complete five years. The BJP remained in power in Jammu and Kashmir as an ally for almost three years, but did nothing for us (Kashmiri Pandits). Whatever the UPA government had done, this government also did not carry forward. ”

Reason for displeasure with Modi government

Srinagar is bathed in whitewash due to continuous snowfall. People are troubled by cold. After the mild sunshine, some children were found playing with snow at the gate of Pandit Colony of Sheikhpura. Some Muslim boys and girls are also among the children. A guard is present at the gate of Pandit Colony. There are many shops next to the guard room.

Sunny Bhatt (who has been changed due to being a government employee) arrived at one of these shops to fetch milk, saying that we had high hopes from the BJP government. We thought that if the BJP came to power, then the days of Kashmiri Pandits would return. But even today, we are forced to live under the shadow of fear. The jobs that were to be got under the Prime Minister package have not been completed even ten years after the release of the package. The real issue was our permanent rehabilitation, it did not happen. Rather, the real name of where we live is ‘Traffic Camp’. As long as there is a job, we are in this government colony. The government can also expel us from this place after the job is over.

Actor Anupam Kher, who has repeatedly praised PM Narendra Modi, also criticized the Modi government for ignoring the Kashmiri Pandits. Anupam Kher had said, “The government should have come to anyone in the country, but if any community has been ignored, they are Kashmiri Pandits. The Modi government also did nothing for the Kashmiri Pandits. ”Anupam Kher has been speaking on the plight of Kashmiri Pandits for a long time.

What was the PM package?

When Manmohan Singh was Prime Minister during UPA-1, the government announced a package for the rehabilitation of Kashmiri Pandits in 2008-09. The purpose of this package was to re-settle the Kashmiri Pandits who were homeless and left behind everything in Kashmir during the violence. Under this, apart from giving him a job, his stay was also arranged. About Rs 1,600 crore was provisioned by the central government at that time under the scheme.

With this step of the UPA government, the hopes of Kashmiri Pandits returning to the valley once again became stronger. But if we look at the data of Kashmiri Pandits, local people and government’s PM package, it can be said that till date nominal Kashmiri Pandits have been rehabilitated in the valley.

The PM package promised to provide jobs to the youth, but today, when almost 10 years have passed since the release of the PM package, the youth have not been able to get jobs. For which there are demonstrations on the day.

Commissioner of Relief and Rehabilitation (Migrants) Department of Kashmir Government, Farooq Ahmad Shah told Newslaundry that Kashmiri Pandits, Sikhs and Muslims who left Kashmir due to violence have been given jobs under the Prime Minister’s Package. In the first year 2008-09, 3,000 jobs were created under this scheme. In this, three thousand people were selected by the year 2014. Appointment was also given to most people. Some also had a dispute in the court which ended in 2017.

Farooq Ahmad Shah further says, the government again announced 3,000 jobs in 2015. We were working fast on this. About fifteen hundred people were also selected. But then the people of the Sikh community went to the High Court and this entire process was stayed. We hope that once the stay is removed, the process of appointing people will start.

Sikh community resentment and high court ban

The Sikh community in Kashmir is demanding minority status for itself. A Sikh leader associated with the BJP says on the condition of anonymity, “Pandits as well as people from the Sikh community were also targeted in the valley during the violence. Many Sikhs were killed. Hundreds of Sikh families were also among those who left the valley. But some families still exist in the valley. We are a minority here, but we do not get any benefit from any government scheme. ”

He says, “When the Manmohan Singh government announced the PM package, it was only for the Pandits. We are also suffering. Even today the Sikh community lives here under the shadow of fear. Recently a sarpanch named Sarman Jeet Singh was killed. His mistake was that he did not boycott the election. Participated in elections and won. ”

When the Sikh community did not get any benefit, they reached the court to get a share in the PM package. Hearing the petition filed on behalf of the community, the High Court in December 2017 has directed to ban any appointment under the special package of the Prime Minister.

On the High Court stay, Mir Javed Mustafa, who was the Minister of Disaster Management, Relief and Rehabilitation in the BJP and PDP governments, says that the people of the Sikh community here said that we should also bring this package inside. Stayed on that foundation. After talking to the Sikh community, we wrote to the Central Government that they should also be given something in the package. By then we only did the government.

Movement for PM package

There have been many agitations to implement the PM package. Young Kashmiri Pandits living in Delhi had agitated outside Raj Bhavan recently. There was a demand of the agitating youth that they should be given jobs as soon as possible.

Ashwini Kumar Charangu, head of Panun Kashmir, an organization fighting for the rights of Kashmiri Pandits, tells Newslaundry, “We had expectations from this government more than other governments. Can not say that the Modi government did nothing for the Kashmiri Pandits. This government has increased the pension of Rs 6600 per month to displaced Kashmiri families to Rs 10,000. ”

Ashwini Kumar Charangu further adds, “But we have not got jobs yet. On the other hand, for years our demand is that those responsible for the massacre of Kashmiri Pandits should be punished. Who killed the Kashmiri Pandits is well known. But so far no one has been sentenced in this case. It would not have happened in the history of the world that so many people have been killed, but no one is responsible for it. ”

 

Why was the 56-inch Lokpal not able to be brought in five years?

A major reason behind the BJP’s bumper victory at the Center in 2014 was Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption movement in Delhi since 2011 and the demand for the establishment of a strong Lokpal. The BJP’s success in converting political anger into the political capital that Arvind Qajriwal and Anna Hazare had pledged against the then UPA government came in the 2014 general elections.

On page number 18 of the BJP’s manifesto released before the 2014 general elections, it is mentioned that in the event of winning, the country will get ‘open government and accountable administration’. It has been written that the BJP will set up an effective Lokpal institution. Corruption of every level will be dealt with strictly and with speed.

Now Narendra Modi’s government is at the last stage of its tenure. Narendra Modi and Amit Shah have already started campaigning for the upcoming Lok Sabha elections. But till now the Lokpal is like that flower of the Burans for the country, which no one has seen till date.

 

Vipul Mudgal, director of Common Cause, an organization fighting for the Lokpal, says that the Narendra Modi government has never been serious about giving the country a strong Lokpal. After coming to the government, they kept searching for excuses for the Lokpal not being implemented. When hearing the petition filed by the Common Cause, the Supreme Court last year ordered the Central Government to set up a search committee to appoint the Lokpal. After that, on September 28, 2018, the Central Government formed the Lokpal Search Committee of eight members, that is, after the term of the Modi government was nearly four and a half years, that too after the rebuke of the Supreme Court.

Change In The Intention

Lokpal search committee was formed under the chairmanship of former Supreme Court Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai. The remaining members are Arundhati Bhattacharya, former chairman of SBI, A. Surya Prakash, president of Prasar Bharati, Sakharam Singh Yadav, former Justice of Allahabad High Court, ISRO chief AS Kiran Kumar, former Gujarat police chief Shabbir Hussain S. Khandwawala, retired IAS Lalit K. Pawar. And Ranjit Kumar.

It is not that after forming the search committee, there has been a change in the intention of the government and it has become conscious about the Lokpal. It has been almost four months since the Lokpal search committee was formed, but so far all the members of the committee have not been able to meet officially even once. Former Allahabad High Court Justice Sakharam Singh Yadav, a member of the search committee, told Newslaundry,

“The committee members have never met together yet. It has been discussed on the phone a few times. But there is no official committee meeting yet. There is no discussion on the name of anyone for the Lokpal yet, maybe we are going to meet soon. ”

Obviously, the government has formed the committee under the pressure of the court, but its intention regarding the appointment of Lokpal is not clear at all. Not having even an official meeting in four months proves this. The 2019 Lok Sabha elections will be announced in the next one month, after which the future of this committee will automatically fall into uncertainty.

Another senior member of the Lokpal search committee tells Newslaundry on the condition of keeping his name a secret, “Whenever the government makes a committee or commission, some members of the staff provide space for them to work. But we have not been provided any place or people yet. Because of this we have never met together. However, former Justice Ranjana Desai mentioned meeting soon in the conversation held recently. ”

Not only the committee members, but also Attorney General KK Venugopal, who appeared on behalf of the government in the Supreme Court, had said recently that the committee does not have the necessary infrastructure and human resources. Due to this, the search committee is unable to work on the selection of Lokpal. After this, a bench headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi ordered the central government to provide necessary facilities to the search committee.

When senior advocate Prashant Bhushan, appearing for the Common Cause Society in the Supreme Court questioned the work of the search committee, Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi advised him to be positive.

Prashant Bhushan also questions the way the Lokpal search committee works. He says, “No one knows what the search committee is doing. There should be transparency on what the committee is deciding. The scale of choosing Lokpal should also be known.

Talking to Prashant Bhushan Newslaundry, he says that the intention of the Modi government is clear that he does not want to make Lokpal. After coming to the government, he deliberately kept avoiding the appointment of Lokpal. After our efforts, when the Supreme Court issued a notice, then a search committee was formed.

Formation Of The Search Committee

Prashant Bhushan further says, “It has been four months since the search committee was formed, but they have not met yet. It is being said that no room has been given to the search committee, no people have been given all this to the government. The way the government is adopting a lax attitude towards the Lokpal for the last five years, it is clear that the government does not intend to bring a strong Lokpal. ”

A member of Lokpal search committee absorbed in Modi-BJP devotion

The Facebook profile of Sakharam Singh Yadav, a member of the search committee to select the Lokpal, which will be the largest institution to investigate corruption of people in political positions, is full of praise of the Modi government and the praise of the BJP.

Sakharam Singh Yadav has shared the video of a Facebook page named Yogi Adityanath on January 11 this year, on which it is written – “Those who oppose Modiji’s foreign visits must see this video, this is Modi ji Amazing, proudly share every Namo supporter. ”

 

Minimum Income Guarantee Scheme: Jumla or Reality

Rukum Pal, who lived in Delhi’s Sheikh Sarai area, having spent a lot of time trying to get old age pension for three years, is not getting the benefit of the government pension scheme announced in the name of social security. The 63-year-old suffers from asthma and his children do not keep him with them. He lives with his wife on a monthly income of one and a half to two thousand rupees.

By the way, how much difference did a pension scheme of 200 rupees make for people like Rukam Pal? But when we told them that if the government gives benefits of the minimum income guarantee scheme, then how did they feel that they could benefit from it.

In Chhattisgarh, Congress President Rahul Gandhi announced on Monday that he will implement the Minimum Income Guarantee Scheme if his party comes to power. In fact, the scheme is mentioned in the Economic Survey 2016-17 and Arvind Subramanian, the then Prime Minister’s Economic Advisor, described it as an “attractive” scheme and predicted that the plan would form part of the election manifesto. So has the Congress taken this plan before the BJP’s announcement and will the scheme become a weapon to woo voters after farmer loans and better minimum support price?

Shamsher, 42, living in South Delhi, has been unemployed for the past one year. He used to work in a Noida company which has shut down. He is currently alive to help his relatives. They too feel that a scheme like minimum income guarantee will work like a safety valve. It is the suffering of people like Rukum and Shamsher, due to which the Congress party and its supporters are promoting Rahul Gandhi’s announcement as ‘First Mover Advantage’ before the election. However, right now Rahul Gandhi has talked about giving this guarantee only for the poor. It is not known whether he is talking about the rural people or the urban poor.

Feasibility Of The Scheme

Many more questions are associated with this, for example, what will be the basis of deciding the number of poor because many scales of poverty line have been fixed. Apart from this, how much minimum income will be fixed. Until there is no information about numbers and income, it is not possible to find out how much the financial burden of this scheme will be.

It is true that economists from both streams, who are capitalist-minded or left-minded, consider the Minimum Income Guarantee Scheme a good scheme. While the advocates of capitalism feel that this will reduce the subsidies of “waste”, the left economists say that by securing a minimum income, the feeling of social security will increase and the poor will be left with options to do more.

Since the idea of ​​this scheme in the Economic Survey of 2016-17, it is also being told that how many countries of the world are adopting this experiment. Finland, for example, is said to be the “first country to implement a minimum income guarantee” while the fact is that Finland is a much smaller country than India. While India has a population of 130 crore, Finland has a population of less than 6 million. The per capita income in India is less than 1.25 lakhs whereas in Finland the per capita income is more than 32 lakh rupees. Despite this, the “successful minimum income guarantee project” of this country has been limited to only 2000 people, which would be meaningless to compare with a large country like India.

The real challenge is how to collect money for such a big scheme. It is estimated that if 3.5 percent of GDP is spent for minimum income guarantee, then it will be equal to three times of India’s health budget and 10 times of rural employment guarantee scheme.

The Delhi-based National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) studied the data on essential and non-essential subsidies a few years ago and released a report. The economists Sudipto Mandal and S. Sikdar who created this report considered subsidies of facilities like cheap food (PDS), education and water as essential (merit subsidy) and exemptions in fertilizer, petroleum products and LPG as non-essential subsidy (non-merit subsidy) . The study of data from 1987-88 to 2011-12 shows that the expenditure on essential subsidy has increased and the non-essential subsidy has been cut.

What Are The Recommendations?

Economist Pranab Bardhan has calculated on the basis of these figures that up to 10 percent of GDP can be spent on the minimum income scheme by cutting the non-essential subsidy. Bardhan recommends a minimum income of Rs 10 thousand per person per year for this. This amount is less than 1000 rupees a month, but Ashok Kumar, working for social security among the poor living in the slums of Delhi, says that the problem of unemployment and frustration is that even if you get that much money then many people It will be a silver lining for us.

“There is also a lot of running ghost’s diapers. If the poor get some relief in the electoral pulls of BJP, Congress and Aam Aadmi Party, then what is the harm from this, ”says Ashok.

Economist Jean Dreze refused to talk in the context of Rahul Gandhi’s statement, but said that the time has not yet come in a country like India for schemes like minimum income guarantee. In one of his articles, Dreze calls the advocacy of this scheme as “premature articulation”. For this, he cites the economic survey of the government itself, which states, “If not for implementation, then the time has come to consider (minimum income scheme).” While advising caution in this matter Questions are raised in which schemes and how much will the government cut while implementing the minimum income guarantee.

Economic expert of NIPFP, Suyash Rai, says that in addition to cutting the non-essential subsidy, some such subsidies have to be stopped which are given not only to the poor but to the rich. Rai gives an example of exemption available under LPG for this. Here the question arises that will the government buy the middle class resentment to please the poor? Suyyash Rai practically considers the minimum income of Rs 1000 to 1500 per month as correct. They estimate that the government will have to give this benefit to about 10 crore adults.

Accordingly, the government needs a minimum amount of 1.2 lakh crore to 1.8 crore every year for this. Another challenge may be to align spending with the central government and the states. If the government is able to bear this cost with the existing subsidies and social sector schemes, then this announcement is practical or else it will also be called an election jumla.