The pace of the development journey of Hindi in the new century was greatly strengthened by the Nagari Pracharini Sabha established in the last decade of the nineteenth century. The Nagari Pracharini Sabha was formed in 1893 at Queen’s College, Varanasi, as an important link for the propagation of Hindi in the Bharatendu period and the coming century. Over time, it became an organization which not only worked continuously for widespread administrative and academic acceptance of Devanagari script but also tried to preserve and develop its grammar and vocabulary of Hindi. Its contribution in the field of publishing showed its activism in the establishment of Saraswati, the most influential Hindi magazine in the early decades of the twentieth century.
Chintamani Ghosh, the owner of the prestigious publishing group Indian Press in Allahabad, proposed to publish an excellent literary magazine in Hindi and was encouraged by the Nagari Pracharini Sabha. Three years after publication began in January 1900, Saraswati found an editor in the form of Mahabir Prasad Dwivedi whose contribution is known as the Dwivedi era of Hindi language and literature.
According to linguist Bachchan Singh (History of Modern Hindi Literature, Lokbharati Publications, 2003), Acharya Dwivedi, who had been in charge of editing since 1930, made Saraswati the permanent ground for the best prose and poetry written in Khadi Boli. In the same process, Saraswati not only became the mother of such genres as literature criticism and short story in Hindi, but also strengthened the grammar and usage rules of the Khadi dialect. The translation of scientific words through brackets and the development of such words in Hindi also became the hallmark of Saraswati’s editing style.
Emerging writers of the time, such as Premchand and poets, such as Maithilisharan Gupta’s works continued to find a place in Saraswati. In 1903 Premchand himself became the founding editor of a literary magazine called Hans, but with his death in 1936, the magazine was also closed. Rajendra Yadav revived Hans in 1986 after 50 years. The literary galleries of Allahabad University, the trend towards new writing styles and the mixed influence of Dwivediji’s editorial leadership made Saraswati stand out in a clear bid. Saraswati had no place for Awadhi and Braj in Hindi, she was inspired by the multi-faceted utility of Khadi Boli. In the language of Saraswati, Sanskrit got a special place in the expression with more use of corresponding words.
In this context, the correspondence between the angry linguist and the officer in the British government, George Abraham Grierson and the editor Acharya Dwivedi, is interesting because of Avadhi and Braj not finding a place in Saraswati.
In response to one such letter from Grierson, in which he expressed concern over the shrinking role of Awadhi and Braj in Hindi literature, Dwivedi wrote, “We speak Hindi and it would be appropriate that we write poetry in this language. The era of Surdas, Bihari and Keshav is now past of Hindi. We have to mold ourselves according to the needs of the present tense. It seems that you are not familiar with the literature of modern Hindi. I believe that in the coming 20 years, not a single verse of Hindi poetry will be written in Braj or Awadhi. I am sending you two copies of Kanyakunj magazine with Saraswati. Both have Khadi Boli poems for which many letters of appreciation have been received, including women. ”
Along with Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, editors like Srinath Singh and Devidutt Shukla also contributed to the editorial leadership of Saraswati.
Meanwhile, on the initiative of Nagari Pracharini Sabha, Hindi Sahitya Sammelan was organized in 1910 under the chairmanship of Madan Mohan Malviya with the aim of promoting and spreading Hindi language and literature. Although the first conference was held in Varanasi, in 1911, when it was held in Allahabad, Allahabad became its headquarters as an institution and its nationwide branches were spread and it got a lot of strength from the literary interests of the then Allahabad University. At that time, Allahabad was the bastion of many great Hindi writers and poets.
Nevertheless, the most important trend was to connect Hindi with the consciousness of the national movement. Mahatma Gandhi’s presence encouraged this effort of Hindi literature conference. Mahatma Gandhi also became the chairman of Hindi Sahitya Sammelan in 1918 and 1935. After his book Hind Swaraj (1909), Gandhi was seen in these institutional events with the ideology that was exploring the possibilities of developing Hindi as a link in multilingual India.
While the importance of Hindi was a broad vision inspired by practical reasoning and inclusive nationalism, it also showed the form in which Hindi was glorified as an adoration. In an article published in Economic and Political Weekly in November 2001, Professor Charu Gupta has analyzed the trend of putting Hindi as a goddess in these decades. The expression of this trend also went in simple poetic slogans, such as these lines published in Rashtriya Murali in 1922: “We are Hindi Tan, Hindi Mata is our / our language is Hindi, Asha is the only Hindi of all of us. Is Hindi. ”
Whatever the form, Hindi’s ambition was in two different directions during this period. On one hand, Hindi wanted to become the official language of parts of North, Central, and Eastern India, on the other hand it wanted to emerge as an enlightened language for dialogue in national intellectual life. These two in Hindi news journalism Look like this.
Public language was predominant in Pratap, published before 1913 as a weekly and later as a daily. The editorial style in the common colloquial language was developed by the founder-editor Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi. Regional dialects also found a place in it. Although Vidyarthji also edited a literary magazine called Prabha, Pratap’s image always remained as a public language newspaper.
The biggest impact of Hindi news journalism on modern Hindi came after seven years. Shivprasad Gupta, the former ruler of Ajmatgarh and wealthy landowner of the region, was associated with the Congress party in the national movement. He took the financial responsibility of many programs of national level leaders including Mahatma Gandhi on his shoulders. After returning from his world tour in 1920, he was impressed by the Times newspaper published from London. His desire was to establish a newspaper reaching the wider public about the news and ideas related to the national movement.
The result of this started as a daily newspaper which started its journey from 6 September 1920. Baburao Vishnu Paradkar, who was an anti-British revolutionary as well as a scholar, was chosen for its editing. Paradkar also had the experience of journalism in newspapers like Hitavarti (Hindi version) and Bharat Mitra. But along with him Babu Sriprakash was made the editor in chief. The reason for this was to use the services of Reuters news agency to publish news of Europe and the whole world today so that readers would not have to read English newspapers. After Sriprakash’s departure in 1924, Parakar, along with R. Khadilkar, became synonymous with editorial leadership for the next 30 years.
Lakshmishankar Vyas (Paradkarji and Journalism, Bhartiya Jnanpith, 1960) and Shevanti Ninan (Headlines from the Heartland, Sage, 2007) have cited several dimensions and contexts in which the newspaper and Paradkar today developed the language of news journalism in Hindi. The centrality of the role is visible.
Talking about the editorial values of today inspired by the New York Times Code of Conduct, it was also an attempt to give Hindi a new direction for news journalism apart from literary journalism. Today, a laboratory of modern Hindi was created, which not only popularized the words like Mr. Lagana and President before the name, but in its office there was continuous dialogue on the nuances of grammar and word-craft. In which sentences should the word ‘come’ after the noun, such as debate or newspaper owner Shivprasad Gupta, how appropriate it is ‘tunnel’ for the English word mine of jiksha, while it can have other meanings.
Paradkar himself saw Hindi as the national language. To enrich Hindi, he took around 200 words from other Indian languages which were used today.
Growth Of The Hindi Journalism
How serious today was to develop the language of Hindi journalism, it can be estimated from this that the newspaper formed a trust named Gyan Mandal. The responsibility of this trust was to develop journalistic-appropriate terminology and research on Devanagari fonts. Khadilkar gave appropriate scientific words to Hindi newspapers and many words used in economic journalism were born today, such as inflation. It is not that Paradkar used to appreciate only enlightened language. He published many short stories of Premchand in today and he believed that Premchand took Hindi to the common people.
Another trend became a matter of debate in the same period. A stream of Hindi journalism started pruning Sanskrit in Hindi, trimmed the words of Urdu and Persian, also the sounds and symbols associated with it. Like when writing editorial in Abhyudaya established in 1930, Madan Mohan Malviya asked – “Why is Bindi in Hindi?” According to some writers, such as Amrit Rai (Hindi Nationalism, Orient Longmen, 2000), it had the seeds of Hindi nationalism.
1930s and 1940s was also the decade when such newspapers started to be published in Hindi which became big newspapers in independent India. In 1936, Hindustan Times Group started publishing Hindustan in Hindi, then in 1942, Dainik Jagran started publishing from Jhansi.
In independent India, Hindi did not get constitutional approval of the national language but it was accepted as the official language. After this, what was the contribution of journalism in the journey of Hindi – the predominance of nationalist, Sanskrit-inspired purity or the ease of the public language or the mixed form of all this? More importantly, what impact did Hindi journalism have on Hindi in the last nearly three decades undergoing the effects of economic liberalization and Khagaulisation? We will discuss some such questions in the last part of this series.